(Miller Family Correspondence)
Archive of Correspondence and Ephemera of Maud Bauer Miller, of Newark, Ohio and Oakland, California, her children and their spouses, 1881-1980

Collection of 123 letters, 437 manuscript and typed pages, (95 retained mailing envelopes), dated 1881-1980, the bulk dating from 1920-1949; also includes over 100 pieces of related ephemera, pertaining to the family including photographs, postcards, telegrams, family genealogy, vital records, greeting cards, etc.

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          Maud Bauer Miller (1863-1942) and Family

Maud M. Bauer was born on 15 September 1863, in Alfred Center, New York. She was the daughter of Thomas Dodson Bauer and his wife Hannah S. Sherman. Bauer and his wife were professors at Alfred University at the time of their daughter Maud’s birth. Maud’s mother, Hannah was born 9 December 1828 and married Maud’s father on 25 December 1860, in New Albany, Indiana. Hannah died 17 June 1910, in Somerville, Massachusetts. She had been a teacher, and knew seven languages. Hannah was the daughter of Samuel Sherman and Malinda Stanton; Samuel Sherman was the son of Peleg Sherman and Hannah Willett; Hannah Willett was the daughter of Samuel Willett (1751-1843) and Elizabeth Andreas; Samuel Willett served in the American Revolution as a private in Capt. Jone’s Company, Col. Taylor’s Regiment. Documents in this collection show Maud and others in the Miller family sought induction into the Daughters of the American Revolution, or other lineage societies.

Maud M. Bauer moved with her parents to Newark, Ohio, where she attended the Old Central High School from which she graduated in 1879. She taught her first school at Loyd’s on the Jacksontown Pike, and later was a teacher at the Perryton School (Ohio), here she met her future husband, Lebbeus D. Miller, they were married on 23 March 1882 at the Pilgrim Congregational Church, Newark, Ohio, by the Rev. E.J. Jones.

Maud worked as a stenographer at a utility company. She was also active in the Women’s Christian Temperance Union and took her oath from temperance reformer and women’s suffragist Francis Willard (1839-1898), the national president of the WCTU and its founder.

Lebbeus Dunn Miller was born 11 May 1858, in Perryton, Ohio. He was the youngest son of Joseph Miller and Elizabeth Custer (1812-1888). His grandfather was supposed to have been one Robert Miller, of Pennsylvania, who served in the War of 1812. The Oakland artist-poet Joaquin Miller also claimed to have a grandfather named Robert Miller, from Pennsylvania, who served in the War of 1812. Maud’s family believed they may have been related to Joaquin Miller, but it has not been proven. A pamphlet in the collection about Joaquin Miller’s estate (“The Heights”) in Oakland, has manuscript annotations and notes by Maud Bauer Miller detailing the estates history and Joaquin Miller’s life. The pamphlet was given to Maud by Juanita Miller, Joaquin Miller’s daughter. Lebbeus Miller, Maud’s husband, was the great-great grandson of Sarah Ball Custer, the sister of President George Washington’s wife Martha Ball Washington. There is only one letter in this collection by Lebbeus Miller. The collection mainly revolves around Maud Bauer Miller and her children, and their correspondence with each other.

Maud and Lebbeus Miller had at least nine children: Walter Miller (1883-), died young; Frank Stanton Miller (1884-1935); Amie Glen Miller (1886-1958) who married a Mr. Phillips; Sherman Miller (died in infancy); Floyd Rudolph Miller (1889-1940), there are a couple of photos of him in the collection; Lorena Eleanor Miller (1893-1960), resided at St. Louisville, Ohio, she married a Mr. Tiebout; Carl Frederick Miller (1896-1967), resided at Frazeysburg, Ohio and married a woman named Agnes, and they had a daughter Kathleen. There are a number of letters in this collection by Carl Frederick Miller and his wife Agnes, as well as letters of Lorena Miller and Frank Stanton Miller.

Another of Lebbeus and Maud’s daughters was Cecelia Esther Miller (1899-1978), she was born in Perry Township, Licking Co., Ohio. She attended Perry Township High School, graduating in 1916, and moved to Oakland, California, with her mother in 1921, where she met and married Jesse “Jack” Howard Cole. Cole was born 9 March 1900, in Buncombe Co., North Carolina, and married Cecelia in Oakland on 8 November 1926. Jack Cole died on 5 January 1961, in Oakland. He served in WWI, enlisting in 1916 and was discharged in 1919, as a corporal with the 115th Machine Gun Battalion. He saw action in WWI with the AEF, in occupation Ypres Salient, Belgium, Veormeze Le-Mont Kemmel engagement; Bellicourt-Nauroy; Premont-Vasch Andigny Engagement; Selfe River; and remained in Germany for occupation purposes. There are a number of letters in this collection by, and to, Cecelia Miller and her husband Jack Cole.

Maud and Lebbeus’ youngest daughter was Evelyn Elizabeth Miller. She was born 2 February 1905, in Perry Township, Licking Co., Ohio, and died in 1974. She also moved to Oakland, California with her mother Maud and sister Cecelia. Evelyn graduated from the Oakland Technical High School in June 1923 and went to work for Western Power Company in Oakland, California as a stenographer and later was promoted secretary to the Division Electric Superintendent. She was married at the age of 22 in Oakland, on 31 November 1927 to Justin Francis Greene. He was born 30 Oct 1900, Johnson Co., Texas and died 10 August 1961, in San Francisco. He was the son of Arthur Percival Greene (born Texas) and Laura Richardson (born Oklahoma), of Johnson Co., Texas. Greene later moved to Oakland, California. Greene was a veteran of WWI and WWII. He enlisted in U.S. Navy for WWI (1918-1921) and Marine Crops in WWII (1942-1946) and wound up in the Quartermaster’s Department, in San Diego, California. After the war he worked for the accounting department of P.G. & E. (Pacific Gas & Electric), he had previously worked for Western Power Company which is where he met his wife Evelyn Miller. Great Western Power merged with P.G. & E. There are a good many letters in this collection by and to Evelyn Miller and her husband Justin Greene.

Maud Bauer Miller had a brother, Ralph Sherman Bauer (1867-1941). He was the proprietor of “The R.S. Bauer Company: Stationers, Engravers, & Printers,” of Lynn, Massachusetts. He later became mayor of Lynn. He married Fannie Miller, daughter of John Miller, shipbuilder, of Chicago, Illinois. They had one son Paul Sherman Bauer, who married Kathrine Williams, daughter of Judge Guy R. Williams of Havana, Illinois. Paul Sherman Bauer attended Phillips Andover, then Harvard Engineering School. There are letters in this collection by Ralph Sherman Bauer (5) and his son Paul S. Bauer (1).

Maud also had a sister Hulda Sherman Bauer (1870-) who married a Mr.Emmel/Emmal, of Glenwood, New Jersey, and a second sister Marie Sherman Bauer (1873-1948) who married Francis A. Neff, Jr., of Salem, Massachusetts. There is one letter in this collection by Hulda Sherman Bauer.

Lebbeus Miller died 24 September 1913 and after some time, Maud moved to Oakland, California, in 1921, where she died 11 June 1942.


         Description and Inventory of Collection:


The letters in this collection are written by and to various members of Maud Bauer Miller’s family, including Maud Bauer Miller, her husband Lebbeus Miller, and their children, and children’s spouses, as well as her grandchildren, including:

Evelyn Miller and Justin Greene, her husband; Cecelia Miller and her husband Jesse (Jack) Cole; Carl Miller and his wife Agnes, Lorena Miller, as well as Maud Bauer Miller’s brother, Rudolph (Ralph) Sherman Bauer and her sister Hulda Bauer. Other relatives are Paul S. Bauer, Fred Emma Sherman, and Maud’s grandchildren Dorothy and Frances Miller.

The bulk of the letters were written by Cecelia Miller Cole (23) and Carl Miller and his wife Agnes (30) and Evelyne Miller Greene and her husband Justin (17), the bulk of these letters were written to Maud Bauer Miller (56). The collection includes letters by Evelyn Miller Greene and her husband Justin (49), as well as Cecelia Miller Cole and her husband (7). There are also letters written by Maud Bauer Miller (8), Ralph Sherman Bauer (5), Frank Miller (3), Dorothy and Frances Miller (2), Paul S. Bauer (1), and other relatives, friends, business associates; as well as other letters received by Ralph S. Bauer, Hannah Sherman Bauer, Lebbeus Miller, Esther Miller, Lorena Miller, etc.

An inventory of the letters and the years they were written follows:

7 letters, 33 manuscript pp., dated from 1881-1918, of these 7 early letters, 5 were written by Maud Bauer Miller to her brother Ralph S. Bauer (2), her husband Lebbeus Miller (2), and her mother Hannah Sherman Bauer (1).

There are 36 letters, 134 manuscript and typed pages, dated 1920-1929, (9 of which are typed). There are 39 letters, 119 manuscript and typed pages dated 1931-1939 (18 letters are typed). The 75 letters in these two groups contain letters between the Miller family members and represent a good bulk of the collection. The letters written in the 1930s provide a look at conditions in the Great Depression, with people out of work, work hard to find, and the struggles of people to survive even when employed.

The collection includes 19 letters, 82 manuscript and typed pages dated 1941-1949, 2 letters are typed. These letters from the 1940s contain letters by Justin Greene, husband of Evelyn Miller, Maud’s daughter, when he was in military service during World War II. There is also much correspondence during this period between Maud’s daughters’ families (the Greene and Cole families), who were living in Newark, Ohio (Cole family) and Oakland, California (Greene family) and includes descriptions of travel, vacation, etc., and correspondence between the family members, spouses, etc.

The 1960s are represented by 13 letters, 39 manuscript and  typed pages dated 1960-1967, and finally, there are 9 letters, 30 manuscript pages dated from 1974-1980, with all of which are hand written. The 1960s features correspondence between the family of Carl and Agnes Miller and Evelyne and Justin Greene.


15 miscellaneous pieces of ephemera, includes receipts, typed and manuscript verse, military papers, pamphlets, including:  White’s Biography Brochures: Ralph Sherman Bauer” (1927) and “About ‘The Heights’ at Oakland, California” by Juanita Miller, given by Juanita Miller to Maud Bauer Miller, 1921, it is annotated with manuscript notes by Maud to her children concerning Joaquin Miller, the western artist and poet, with whom they may have been related to, however, given the vagaries of Joaquin Miller’s life and genealogy it is unclear.

58 typed pp. of genealogical notes on the Miller/Bauer/Sherman families, some copies of others.

17 newspaper clippings, mostly dealing with family, such as death notices, news, etc.

19 various vital records, births, deaths, marriages, etc., for Miller/Bauer/Sherman families, various dates.

2 telegrams, dated 1949,

4 black and white photographs, 3 dated 1921-1922, one not dated, various sizes, 3 photos labeled, other not, 2 photos of Floyd R. Miller, 1 of Evelyn, Anna, and their mother in San Francisco, California.

3 postcards, dated 1936, to Mr. and Mrs. Justin Greene, from Agnes, other.

4 invitations/cards, date c1892-1926

58 greeting cards, to and from Bauer/Sherman/Miller families, mostly not dated.

13 used envelopes, likely could be matched to letters in collection.

          Examples of Correspondence:

“Perryton Ohio, Sept 29th 1884


Dear Rudolph,


I rec’d your postal in due time and hasten to reply to it. You must excuse my silence, I have hardly found time to sleep this summer. On the 19th of this month we had a hard earthquake shock, it shook our house badly, knocking down pictures, it was accompanied by a loud rumbling report. On last Saturday the 27th inst., we were visited by a terrific cyclone, it lasted not over five minutes, that is the worst of it; but during that time, it did a great deal of damage. I had noticed in the afternoon that a storm was gathering and about half past five I went to the other end of town on an errand thinking that I could return before the rain. I did not stay much over a minute at the house and when I came out I noticed a strange cloud in the north west it had grown very dark, the sky seemed almost black save this one cloud which was of a luminous gray color. It was cone shaped like this [drawing of a cyclone shape] and was moving at a fearful rate not more than 15 feet above the ground, that is its lower edge, it came rolling and tumbling sweeping everything before it. I ran for dear life to get home for I thought that we were all to be killed, and I wanted to be with Leb and Baby, but I could not outrun the storm it was on me before I knew it. The street was thickly lined with shade trees all the way until within a short distance from our house; when I reached this cleared space, I could hear the trees crashing behind me; and a gust from another direction was blowing against me. My breath gave out before I reached home and I had to turn in at Mr. Beabout’s, next door. I got inside the gate just as Mr. Berry’s house across the street went crashing down. Our barn and Mrs. Bland’s stable are flat on the ground. Mr. Berry’s house is demolished, a dozen or more barns, sheep houses, houses, &c., are ruined right in town; the Disciple Church is pronounced unsafe, in an apple orchard back of us but 2 or 3 trees are left. Our old shop had a large portion of its roof rafters and all taken. Some of the weatherboarding is blown off of our house. But I don’t think of that, I am glad that none of us were killed…We send love to all. Write soon, Maud”


“Perryton, Ohio, Sept 2, 1900


Dear Mamma,


I received your very welcome letter, as I would have rec’d one from the dead. I have written to all of the folks in rotation and have heard from not one letter, until receiving your postal. How is Hulda’s health this summer? I did hope that I would be able to come “East.” This summer, but that ever-ready question of finance bobbed up and stopped me. I hope that I will be able to come home before I get so old that I can’t travel. We are straining every nerve to get a good stock of goods in our store; we have 5 times as much as when you were here. Frank goes to Newark tomorrow to work in the glass-house if he likes it he will stay about 3 mos., and then go to school. We could not spare Floyd for this reason, and then I do not think that you ought to keep house. You would have to have some one to prepare and make you eat your meals at the proper time; you cannot stand the same system of recuperation that you did twenty years ago. Floyd is only a child and has a healthy boy’s appetite, I doubt if you could cook enough in one day to last him a day.


We do not intend to stay here all our lives, when we have a good chance to sell out we will do so. Now Mamma don’t live by yourself. I expect that you have as nearly a perfect home with the girls as you will ever have on earth. “Such polite well-bred children, no smoking, no drinking, no hard or sordid work.” No tired out, cross worked down women. I know of few such homes. I am always glad to have you with me, why not come here? To be sure, there is nothing inviting in my surroundings, but I would give you filial respect. I wish that you would send me one of your dictionaries the next time Rudo sends me anything. Do you think that Frank could find employment with his uncle? He is a careful & trusty clerk; his whole trend is to become a businessman, he does not care for the professions. I think that Floyd will make a professional man, he is just about lazy enough…


We have a large filtered cistern just adjoining the back porch and a double floored porch over it 12 x 14 ft. I have had a great quantity of water all summer, enough for every purpose, & for Mrs. McCann’s use to as long as she lived there. The old Dr. died the last of July and she broke up housekeeping right away. She is going to New York about the first of Oct. to spend the winter with her daughter Addie, a Bellevue nurse. Dr. Cullison has been on a ‘tear’ nearly all summer. He uses opium & drinks hard with it and every so often, he goes ‘stark staring mad.’ Drunk I call it, for that is what it is.


Mr. Blount’s son Scott, who left his wife & ran off with $200 of his firm’s money has married again down in Tenn. His wife got a divorce…We all send love & kisses to you all…Lovingly, Maud”



“170 St. Botolph St., Boston, Mass.


My dear Sister & Brother,


I received your welcomed letter, at the hospital, sometime ago, and was so glad to hear from you personally, although I hear indirectly thru Mamma about you & Jack, and I am glad to hear that you are both well and seem to be so happy.


I am out of the hospital, but unable to go to work at present, but I will have to do something as soon as I can get hold of a line, which is very hard right now, and get to work or go on the street, as I am only getting $5 a week from the Welfare, and I can’t eat and pay room rent on that so you see how I am situated so that’s the reason.


I expect you will think I have one hell of a nerve, but dear sister I am going to ask you to advance the money and pay this quarterly ins premium again for me, which I shall absolutely refund you in six or eight weeks, unless something drastic happens to me, and unless this is paid at once, I will hose it altogether, which I do not want to unless absolutely have to. I know there is not much left of it, but there is enough to bury me with should any thing happen and at present that is all I have left to do this job should I pass out.


I have borrowed on it now all that it is possible for me to borrow, but as I say it will leave me enough for a half decent burial in case anything should happen. Hoping you will attend to his at once for me and I will surely repay you, thanking you both, and hoping this will find you both in best of health love & best wishes to you both your loving brother, Frank”



“R.S. Bauer Company, Lynn, Massachusetts, Stationers, Engravers, Printers, August 17, 1923

         Dear Sister:


I was very glad indeed to hear from you under date of August 10th, and to know that your family were getting along so splendidly. The thing now for you to do is to show a little mercy to yourself. The children have all now received from you everything that a Mother could give, and many things more than a Mother generally gives, and it seems to me that what little time is allotted to you, should be taken in as much comfort as possible. Both you and I are growing old, this earth, and with that in sight, I think it is the duty of both of us to let up on ourselves and serve the rest of our time as easily as possible.


You know I am not much of a letter writer. I don’t believe Fannie ever got six letters from me in the thirty years we have been married, but that should not make any difference between us.


I do not know anything about the Neff family, except that I suppose they are alive and well, as they never visit us. The only time I ever see them is when I go over to Salem and force myself into their presence.


Huldah is not very well, although she keeps happy and busy with her grandchildren. We expect her to spend Sunday after next with us at the little farm we own in Amesbury, where we spend the summer time. It is a twenty-one-acre place on the border of a Lake. We have six acres in garden, and raise almost everything the household needs up there, including a little ‘hell.’


It seems to me that Warren Harding died in order to tie the American people closer together and bring out the universal spirit of reverence for men who have served the Nation, which spirit was rapidly disappearing in all directions. You probably know that all progress the World has ever made has been the result of some shock. It seems that people no matter how civilized, or well educated, or Christianized they may be respond always nobly to the ‘gospel of the shock,’ and are not so early in responding to any other gospel.


Calvin Coolidge has visited us at our summer home with his wife and two children, and I have a personal acquaintance with him. He will make a great President. There is no doubt about it, as he has all the qualities of World Leadership, without any of the personal magnetism or ‘bull’ that men in public life general possess. His heart and head are 100% all right, and his capacity is marvelous.

With best wishes to you and the children from all of us,  Rudo”


“Frazeysburg, Ohio, Nov 4th, 1923


Dear Mothers & Slats,


You want to call in the neighbors, doctors & friends, as your son has a pen in his hand…


I have been busy this summer and fall lots of work. I have been away from home most of the summer started in the first of April and came home to stay two wks ago and have been gone five days of that time. I had to cut the gang that I have been working all summer back to fifteen men was working between 34 & 40. The oil business sure is on the bum here. I wish you would have them to strike dry holes out there as the Cal. oil can be sent to the eastern refineries for less money than the oil here. We have lots of work but are doing just what we can with the men we have…


Mother you were asking about the house & Keylor’s. Kelyor’s moved out the first of Oct. and I haven’t any renter now. I have the house up for sale and I think mother that the way things are and the location that if you can get $600.00 out of your home you had better let it go, and I will say if the house belonged to me that if I could get $500 I would sell, because the house will have to be painted in the Spring & I am afraid it will have to be roofed. If you will leave it to me to make the deal and use my own judgement I may be able to sell. I told you what I would take if it were mine. If you think this not enough let me know. Houses are renting in Perrytown for $3.50 & $4.00 per month, so you will have an idea what things are like over there. I don’t know whether Agnes told you that I lowered the rent in Apr. for Kelyor I cut it back to $6.00 and that was about a $1.50 more than any other house was renting for and this is not hearsay, but personal inquiry. Please consider these things and let me know where I stand…


How is the K.K.K. in Cal? It is getting to be pretty strong around here. They held a big conclave at Zanesville last night, I went down to get me some new harness and saw the parade…

I will close with lots of love…Carl, Agnes & Kathleen…”


“Kansas City, Mo., June 6, 1927


Dear Mama & Evelyn:


I never have heard from you since you went to Russian River therefore I am wondering how your trip panned out.


I didn’t write you the day I should because I did some very special work for two attorneys from Washington, D.C., three & a half days last week & as it was rush work I was kept on the jump. They have a big case to try in Federal Court today & for two or three days so my work is thru. However, in those 3 ½ days I made $25.00 but had to rent a typewriter to take home to do the work on so I got it for a month & it was $4.00, but yet that was pretty good pay I’ll say and they were so pleased & appreciative of my work.


I do hope I get steady work soon but the weather is so bad – it is raining today again and these Missourians are sure afraid to start anything in the rain. Also, the flood has caused a great depression in work. However, we will persevere I guess and we will get settled someday…


Let us hear from you soon just a note…We both are fine. Jack’s Colonel had to take an 18-day sick leave due to the accident he had three weeks ago, so Jack is left alone with all the medical units to care for so I fear he is going to be very busy. Lots of love to you both, Cecelia & Jack…”



“9 Sunnyside St., Jamaica Plain, Oct 23, 1931


Dear Grandma,


We received your letter and was glad to hear from you. We are glad to hear that you have been able to take a vacation. Yes, I am working in the same place, and Frances is working for the Fire Underwriters. She works in the office. We are sorry that our father has had such bad luck, but it seems that every time he goes to the Hospital that his women always leave him because he doesn’t have any money to give them. If he had been living a good Christian life, he wouldn’t have all this trouble now.

Naturally we should be loyal to our Mother, for all the care she gave us, when my father was so mean to her. She brought us up to be what we are now, and we should really be a credit to her. We are sorry to hear that Uncle Floyd is having a hard time with his business. It is terrible here in Boston. So many are out of work. Most of us are just lucky enough to keep our jobs. I hope that things will be easier for everybody soon. We are having such changeable weather lately. So many people have got colds. Well we hope you are in the best of health, and wish the others the same, with love and regards to the rest, your granddaughters Dorothy & Frances.”



Frazeysburg – O 4/10 1932


Dear Mother & All,


…I have been very busy for the past three weeks and have quite a bit of work a head of me. How is business out there? Things are getting worse here every day. I am still holding my job but don’t know for how long. I have orders to cut off four of my men the 15th of April. The oil business in Ohio is shot for a long while cannot compete with the Western fields. I hope that Evelyn & Justin can still keep their positions. Tiebout has been working most of the time since the first of the year. So, we have not seen or heard much of them. We have had sickness most of the winter. I started the ball rolling when I had the flu. I lost 4 days work the first time I have been off for six years, of course I was paid but I hate to have my record broken…


Our company has been taking over some production that the Lenard Oil & Gas Co has had connected and has made a lot of extra work for me. I just finished a new gathering system & built a pumping station over back of Staddens Bridge. I am just starting a new gathering system u at Perryton (my old home town) on brother Joseph Chaney farm. So, you see with having to entertain Joseph & look after my work I will be very busy. I hope that Floyd & Anna can come out of this slump with flying colors. Tell them just to take it easy and just make a living and be satisfied, there isn’t any use of them trying to build up a big fortune just for their kids to fight over. If they can’t make anything they needn’t to worry for they have lots of company. I have the same size pay check coming in every 2 wks and haven’t saved anything for 2 yrs, but greens are coming on now so I guess we will have something to eat.


…With lots of love from the whole family to Mother, Slats & Justin, Your scribbling son & all, Carl, Agnes, Kathleen, & Pee Wee”



“March 10, 1933


My dear folks all:


I received your nice letter the other day and one hasn’t much to write about or think of now except the national situation, but somehow and someway I am sure that none of us will go hungry. Don’t you worry about us back here and we are not going to worry about you folks but just rust in things coming back within a short time. Rome wasn’t built in a day and the President has to have time to put into effect a new deal and a new policy. Now don’t laugh, for it is really a serious situation. But let’s give him a chance to do right and perhaps if they make him a King or Mussolini or something, he can do something, and the Lord above knows that our Congress will never get us anywhere, so give the President free reins and his chance to do something. I am for you Franklin if you make a go of it and will even vote for your reelection if you bring this country out of it, but I fear he cannot stand the strain and will not be with us that many years longer.


Poor Jack is dumbfounded, being a Southerner by birth and just having recently returned from the South where his folks sort of rechristened him a Democrat and made him believe that Roosevelt was our Savior etc. (all this after I had Jack made a pretty good Republican for the past six years, all my work wasted in vain after his Mother and Sisters, etc., told him Roosevelt was great). He doesn’t know what to think and of course cannot get to me to talk personally but just has to write his ideas, etc., after the banks closed, but he is trying to cheer me up and yet deep down in his heart he says that what I told him last summer would happen if Hoover was not re-elected if just about all coming true right the first ten days of the Democratic administration. However, Jacks says he is a good sport, and if Roosevelt saves the country and brings us out of this without suffering too much and makes things better, I must become a Democrat, but if Roosevelt fails and has to call on Republicans, etc., to help him out of this crisis, then Jack is never to speak to another Democrat, ha!


Anyways, folks, here is what all of us connected with our organization have figured out. If you are paid 20% cash, and rest checks, do not spend on cent of the cash but hide it some safe place, and pass every payroll check immediately on to the grocer, baker, candlestick maker, etc. Don’t hold a check a minute. Now, Evelyn and Justin, I am not sure whether our mortgage read that you had to pay gold tender or not but be most certain that you get a separate receipt for every cent you pay on your mortgage and hold on to those receipts. Don’t let any ifs or ands get into the receipt either. Either they take your checks or they don’t and get your receipt to these checks. If you get paid in small denomination checks, buy so you may get back a little silver and then use another check for the next purchase, etc., until you get every check out of your hands. Even buy your next winter coats, underwear, shoes, new tires, and everything possible that you can get them to take the checks (that is payroll checks) for and get yourself all fixed up. Buy all the groceries possible with such checks and store them away. Things in cans and that will keep. The theory is if worse comes to worse, have some things on hand to eat and have those checks in some other fellows’ hand and then your employer is responsible for the payroll checks, or Roosevelt is, or anyone but you.


Do the same way with the new money they issue, and don’t hold on to it, but buy with it for all you can and pay on your mortgage with it if they will take it, pay your insurance, taxes, etc., but do not hoard it, for when the new money is finally called in (unless a precedent is set) it will be discounted and the ones holding it will get about 35 c on the dollar for all they have in their possession. However, some new laws or other may off set these prophesies, but pay for everything with those checks and save every cent of currency you get, quarters, halves, etc. And don’t keep from buying things you need, because next year things will be so high you will not be able to buy them, so fix up the car, the house, lay in grocers, and get yourselves underwear, coats, suits, dresses, etc., to do for another year, if you can possible do so with this new money you might be paid with.


However, it usually takes all we make to live on as a rule but at that we are passing it on and will not be caught with it on hand. Mother, has a hobby about holding onto checks and that is why I warned you about returning my little Kansas City checks immediately and not hold on to them for I was afraid this would be coming. I had no idea that Mother was holding onto any other checks or would have warned her also. We weren’t the only ones; millions and millions are in the same boat and if only we all eat that is the main thing.


Now, don’t worry about us back here, because we aren’t going to worry about you. We know we all are pulling together and don’t’ knock the President for heaven’s sake. That will ruin the country if we do and don’t help him during this crisis now that it is on.


Do you all notice that Herbert Hoover is remaining in the East? Wonder who is insisting that he remain there? There is much hopes here that he is being asked by Wall Street or other financiers to remain near until this passes over and that is why he did not go on to California with Mrs. Hoover. He may have to save us yet.

All love to each of you and the best of luck, Your devoted children, Cecelia & Jack…”



“December 9, 1933, 321 West 29th Street, New York City, N.Y.


Dear Maud:


Isn’t it about time I answered your letter of November sixteenth? I think so – we were glad to hear from you and to receive your tin-type. There is not the faintest doubt that ‘Tommie’ was your Father is there? You look just like the photo that his final widow sent us, you also look well and very alert, don’t’ look seventy.


I am glad that you can get a ‘kick’ out of prohibition and attending conventions, yes, I remember your snatching the man’s whiskey bottle and how gentlemanly he offered you a drink.


I am glad that you are able to help the ministers, even if it was only six cents (rather a low price for a poem and music too). I do believe in helping others; even ministers, they are the poorest paid swindlers there are, and lots of them are self-hypnotized and believe their own patter. I am glad that you are feeling better in your ribs and should, now if you could only use Christian Science you would know that you were not hurt and were in error when you thought you were. Sounds ‘dippy’ but there are lots of lunatics at large…


Will finally returned John’s capital but the hard times set in before he was able to make any interest for them, and I guess now we are going to arrive in H--- poor, we will not be camels…


Will walks the streets and avenues continuously looking for a job, but so far, all that he has accomplished is leaving his name and address at various shops and factories, this certainly is ‘The Land of the Spree and the Home of the Knaves.’ One has to be a bootlegger, kidnapper, or some other kind of crook to make money these times; and we are too old to learn crook ways…


Rude writes he is having his troubles trying to get any work out of the negroes and he says the English bosses are about as lazy as the coons. He seems to find the climate all right so far, but the place is called ‘the white man’s grave yard.’


Glad that Frank still has a little work, Victor is still looking for a job, our kind of work seems to be like ‘the dodo’ – extinct.

Rude’s address is Tarkwa, Gold Coast Colony, West Africa.  Elsie just arrived there when he sent his last letter, she said she had a wonderful trip ever since she left Peru, enjoyed every minute of it. She had three days in London and flew over the city for a half hour to see it all at once…


It is mean of you to remind me that Christmas is nearly here. Christmas without money is fake. You know that Hannah always said ‘it was a Catholic celebration, gotten up by the priests to get the harvest money away from the people, that Christ was born in July.’ You can’t prove it by me, I wasn’t present at the Virgin’s lying-in.

Give our love to all of your family and don’t forget yourself….yours Hulda”