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Crehore, Albert Cushing and Squier, George Owen
Manuscript Notebook kept by Albert Cushing Crehore in 1899 relating to his work with George Owen Squier on Synchronous AC Telegraphic Systems

Small quarto, approximately 180 pages, entries in both pencil and ink, plus numerous laid in materials, including diagrams, etc., bound in contemporary oil cloth covered flexible boards, paper label mounted on front cover reads: "A.C. Crehore & G. O. Squier Cable E." Some rubbing to covers, in very good, clean condition.

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Significant scientific notebook kept by Cornell and Dartmouth physicist Albert Cushing Crehore1 (1868-1958) while working on synchronous AC telegraphic systems with George Owen Squier2 (1865-1934). Squier was a soldier and electrical engineer, who while stationed in Fort Monroe, Virginia in 1894 set up an electrical engineering laboratory for the Artillery Corps. In collaboration with Albert Crehore, a Dartmouth physicist he had met in graduate school, Squier invented electrical instruments for range finding and studying high-speed projectiles. Crehore and Squier invented and patented in 1897 the Polarizing Photo-Chronograph to measure short intervals of time. He also experimented with submarine telegraphy. He and Crehore took out several telegraphy patents (Squier eventually held sixty-five patents) and in 1899 cofounded the Crehore-Squier Intelligence Transmission Company to exploit these ideas commercially. The research eventually came to the attention of Chief Signal Officer Adolphus Greely, who assigned Squier to the Signal Corps during the Spanish-American War and later to cable laying duty in the Philippines. Eventually a network of thirty submarine telegraph cables were laid out and put in operation from 1900 to 1903. The research Crehore and Squier enaged in were invaluable to the development of an understanding of the military advantages of electrical communications.

The pair's research took them to England, which is noted on the first page: "Aug 3, 1899... bid Squier adieu. Squier took 12m train for Liverpool to catch the Germanic for New York which sailed Wednesday.Mr. Warner came to station to meet us. Mr. Wise was to send man with papers for Squier to sign..." The following pages contain notes and diagrams detailing experiments and proposals in his work which was to contribute greatly to the development of the teletype and related instruments. One of the early diagrams is of "Transmitters in series," with notes: "Send alphabet and see if the various letters are all right, and whether the signals can be received at all or not with present windings..."  A later note reads: "Have prepared sine wave machine to send from Waterville. Causo asked to adjust relay, and has done so. Asked to measure voltage from cable to earth, and speed to 160."  In an entry dated Waterville, August 20, 1899: "Have experimented today. Began by trying to receive through transformer. Joined ... line through primary to earth without condenser and using 1000 to 1000 ratio received good signals up to 200 letters per min ..." 

There are many more passages revealing the scientific process which lead to breakthroughs in communication and transmission.

Crehore invented the first Interperometer Barograph to study waves of pressure in atmosphere. He patented in 1900 a duplex-dilex system of telegraphy installed on the Pennsylvania Railroad between Pittsburg and Toledo. He wrote Synchronous and Other Multiple Telegraphs, (McGraw: 1905); was on the staff of the College of Physicians and Surgeons to develop his invention of the Micrograph used to record the action of the heart in 1910. Crehore sold several inventions to General Electric relating to electric railroads.

Crehore invented and patented about 1900 a machine he called the Typewriting Telegraph and with his brother and others formed the Typewriting Telegraph Company to promote it. This machine was the forerunner of the teletype machine. It was said that the owners of the teletype patents had to wait until Dr. Crehore's patents had run out before launching their apparatus.

Crehore was to later establish himself as a notable nuclear physicist, he wrote in 1926 The Progress of Atomic Theory; What the Neutron Is, in 1941; Atomic Theory, 1942; in 1943 The Crehore Atom, A Mathematical Treatise for The Steady States; in 1951 he published The All Nuclear Atom and Its Implications, amongst numerous other books, papers and articles.

Accompanied by a copy of Crehore and Kin 1620-1961, by Amy H. B. Crehore Falcon (Evanston: 1962)  

  • 1. Who's Who in America, volume 13, pp., 214; American Men of Science, 9th edition, p. 403; Who Was Who in America, vol 4
  • 2. American National Biography, vol. 20, pp., 520-522; Dictionary of American Biography, vol. IX, pp., 489-490